In the 18th century, Italy was still divided into smaller states, but differently than during medieval times when the political entities were independent and were flourishing economic and cultural centers almost unrivaled in Europe. During the 18th century, all of them were submitted, in one way or another, to one of the greater hegemonic powers. This process of conquest and submission began during the early 16th century, when France was called on by the Duke Milan to intervene in his favor and from there never stopped.Starting from the northwest, the kingdom of Sardinia was controlling the Alpine western area and the island from which it took its name and ruled by the Savoy family. The kingdom of Sardinia was the youngest political entity in Italy and, possibly because of that, the strongest and most independent. Milan was found dominating part of the central plane, Venice was in control of the east, and Genova was dominating the coastal area south of the kingdom of Sardinia. Central Italy was ruled by the Duchy of Tuscany and the Papal States, while the south was united under the kingdom of Sicily.In 1847, the Austrian Chancellor Klement von Metternich referred to Italy as merely a “geographical expression,” and to some extent, he was not far off the mark. The inhabitants did not speak Italian; only a literate few wrote in the Italian of Dante and of Machiavelli, and a mere estimated two and a half percent spoke the language. The rest spoke their own regional dialects, which were so distinct from one another as to be incomprehensible from town to town. Similarly, most future Italian citizens knew nothing of the history of the peninsula, but instead learned of their own local traditions and histories.The events of 1848-1849 began to pull the peninsula together, however. In January 1848, Sicily had a major revolution, which provoked widespread uprisings and riots, after which the kingdoms of Sardinia, the Two Sicilies, the Papal States and th 1. Language: English. Narrator: Colin Fluxman. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/160006/bk_acx0_160006_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
The first written records for the history of France appear in the Iron Age. What is now France made up the bulk of the region known to the Romans as Gaul. Roman writers noted the presence of three main ethno-linguistic groups in the area: the Gauls, the Aquitani, and the Belgae. The Gauls, the largest and best attested group, were Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language. Over the course of the 1st millennium BC the Greeks, Romans, and Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean coast and the offshore islands. The Roman Republic annexed southern Gaul as the province of Gallia Narbonensis in the late 2nd century BC, and Roman forces under Julius Caesar conquered the rest of Gaul in the Gallic Wars of 58-51 BC. Afterwards a Gallo-Roman culture emerged and Gaul was increasingly integrated into the Roman Empire. In the later stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to barbarian raids and migration, most importantly by the Germanic Franks. The Frankish king Clovis I united most of Gaul under his rule in the late 5th century, setting the stage for Frankish dominance in the region for hundreds of years. Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne. The medieval Kingdom of France emerged from the western part of Charlemagne's Carolingian Empire, known as West Francia, and achieved increasing prominence under the rule of the House of Capet, founded by Hugh Capet in 987. A succession crisis following the death of the last direct Capetian monarch in 1328 led to the series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years' War between the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet. The war formally began in 1337 following Philip VI's attempt to seize the Duchy of Aquitaine from its hereditary holder, Edward III of England, the Plantagenet claimant to the French throne. 1. Language: English. Narrator: Andrew Winford. Audio sample: http://samples.audible.de/bk/acx0/059355/bk_acx0_059355_sample.mp3. Digital audiobook in aax.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha (Francis Albert Augustus Charles Emmanuel, 26 August 1819 14 December 1861) was the husband of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. He was born in the Saxon duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld to a family connected to many of Europe's ruling monarchs. At the age of 20 he married his first cousin, Queen Victoria, with whom he had nine children. At first, Albert felt constrained by his position as consort, which did not confer any power or duties upon him. Over time headopted many public causes, such as educational reform and the abolition of slavery, and took on the responsibilit ies of running the Queen's household, estates and office. He was heavily involved with the organisation of the GreatExhibition of 1851. Albert aided in the development of Britain's constitutional monarchy by persuading his wife to show less partisanship in her dealings with Parliament although he actively disagreed with the interventionist foreign policy pursued during Lord Palmerston's tenure as Foreign Secretary.
Winston Churchill in politics: 1900-1939, Gallipoli Campaign, Edward VIII abdication crisis, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Under-Secretary of State for the Colonies, Secretary of State for Business, Innovation and Skills, Home Secretary, Secretary of State for the Colonies, Lord Randolph Churchill, Chancellor of the Exchequer, Naval operations in the Dardanelles Campaign, Chancellor of the Duchy of Lancaster, Government of India Act 1935.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Radio Luxembourg is a commercial broadcaster in many languages from the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. It is nowadays known in most non-English languages as RTL (for Radio Television Luxembourg). The English-language service of Radio Luxembourg began in 1933 as one of the earliest commercial radio stations broadcasting to Britain. It was an important forerunner of pirate radio and modern commercial radio in the United Kingdom. It was an effective way to advertise products by circumventing British legislation which until 1973 gave the BBC a monopoly of radio broadcasting on UK territory and prohibited all forms of advertising over the domestic radio spectrum.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. Radio Luxembourg is the name of a commercial radio station that has broadcast in many languages in conjunction with a television service operated from the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Radio Luxembourg in English from 1933 to 1939 and from 1946 to 1992 was an important forerunner of modern commercial radio in the United Kingdom. It was an effective way to advertise products by circumventing British broadcasting restrictions that were in place at the time. Following the original close-down of the English language station broadcasting from the Grand Duchy at the end of 1992, the station remained silent, although rumors began to abound that Radio Luxembourg would once again return to the air under new management with a leased English service. Nothing more was heard of the English language service until 2005.
The Latvian War of Independence, sometimes called the Latvian War of Liberation (Latvian: Latvijas br v bas c as, literally, the "Struggles for Latvia's freedom," or Latvijas atbr vo anas kar , "War of Latvian Liberation"), was a series of military conflicts in Latvia between 5 December 1918, after the Republic of Latvia proclaimed its independence, and the signing of the Treaty of Riga between the Republic of Latvia and the Russian SFSR on August 11, 1920. The war involved Latvia (its provisional government was supported by Estonia, Poland, and the Western Allies, particularly the United Kingdom) against the Russian SFSR and the Bolsheviks' short-lived Latvian Socialist Soviet Republic. Germany and the United Baltic Duchy added a new level of intrigue, initially being nominally allied to the Nationalist/Allied force, but attempting to jockey for German domination of Latvia. Eventually, the tensions flared up after a German coup against the Latvian government and led to open war. Following a ceasefire, the Germans developed a ploy, nominally dissolving into the West Russian Volunteer Army led by general Pavel Bermont- Avalov.
Please note that the content of this book primarily consists of articles available from Wikipedia or other free sources online. The United Provinces of Central Italy, also known as Union of Central Italy, Confederation of Central Italy or Government General of Central Italy, was a short-lived client state of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia. It was formed by a union of the former Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Duchy of Parma, Duchy of Modena, and the Papal Legations, after their monarchs were ousted by popular revolutions. Since August 1859, the pro-Sardinian regimes of Tuscany, Parma, Modena and the Papal Legations entered into a group of military treaties. On 7 November 1859, they elected Eugenio Emanuele di Savoia-Carignano as their regent. However, King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia refused to endorse the election, and sent Carlo Boncompagni instead as the Governor General of Central Italy, who was responsible for the diplomatic and military affairs of the states.
High Quality Content by WIKIPEDIA articles! Safeway (Channel Islands) is a supermarket chain on the Channel Islands. There are two supermarkets, one in Jersey and one in Guernsey. The chain was founded in 2005, when CI Traders (now Sandpiper CI) bought two Safeway supermarkets from Morrisons. The Channel Islands are an archipelago of British Crown Dependencies in the English Channel, off the French coast of Normandy. They include two separate bailiwicks: the Bailiwick of Guernsey and the Bailiwick of Jersey, neither of which is part of the United Kingdom, rather they are considered the remnants of the Duchy of Normandy.